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Journal Articles Acta Neuropathologica Communications Year : 2020

Ultrastructural and dynamic studies of the endosomal compartment in Down syndrome

Xavier Heiligenstein
Orestis Faklaris
Etienne Morel
Graça Raposo

Abstract

Enlarged early endosomes have been visualized in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Down syndrome (DS) using conventional confocal microscopy at a resolution corresponding to endosomal size (hundreds of nm). In order to overtake the diffraction limit, we used super-resolution structured illumination microscopy (SR-SIM) and transmission electron microscopies (TEM) to analyze the early endosomal compartment in DS.By immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy, we confirmed that the volume of Early Endosome Antigen 1 (EEA1)-positive puncta was 13-19% larger in fibroblasts and iPSC-derived neurons from individuals with DS, and in basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCN) of the Ts65Dn mice modelling DS. However, EEA1-positive structures imaged by TEM or SR-SIM after chemical fixation had a normal size but appeared clustered. In order to disentangle these discrepancies, we imaged optimally preserved High Pressure Freezing (HPF)-vitrified DS fibroblasts by TEM and found that early endosomes were 75% denser but remained normal-sized.RNA sequencing of DS and euploid fibroblasts revealed a subgroup of differentially-expressed genes related to cargo sorting at multivesicular bodies (MVBs). We thus studied the dynamics of endocytosis, recycling and MVB-dependent degradation in DS fibroblasts. We found no change in endocytosis, increased recycling and delayed degradation, suggesting a "traffic jam" in the endosomal compartment.Finally, we show that the phosphoinositide PI (3) P, involved in early endosome fusion, is decreased in DS fibroblasts, unveiling a new mechanism for endosomal dysfunctions in DS and a target for pharmacotherapy.
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Dates and versions

hal-02934377 , version 1 (09-09-2020)

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Alexandra Botté, Jeanne Lainé, Laura Xicota, Xavier Heiligenstein, Gaëlle Fontaine, et al.. Ultrastructural and dynamic studies of the endosomal compartment in Down syndrome. Acta Neuropathologica Communications, 2020, 8 (1), pp.89. ⟨10.1186/s40478-020-00956-z⟩. ⟨hal-02934377⟩
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